ALWD 4th Edition and 5th Edition Rule Correlations

ALWD 4th Edition and 5th Edition Rule Correlations
ALWD 4th edition ALWD 5th edition
Rule 1: Typeface for Citations Rule 1: Typeface for Citations
1.1 Typeface Choices 1.1 Typeface Choices
1.2 When to Use Ordinary Type in Citations 1.2 When to Use Ordinary Type
1.3 When to Use Italics in Citations 1.3 When to Use Italics (or Underlining)

1.3(a) Components to italicize

Chart 1.1 Citation Components to Italicize (new)

1.4 Typeface for Punctuation in Citations 1.3(b) Italicized punctuation
1.5 Possessive Endings of Italicized Material 1.3(c) Possessive endings of italicized material
1.6 Italicized Material within Italicized Material 1.3(d) Italicized material within italicized material
1.7 Italics to Show Emphasis 1.3(e) Italicizing for emphasis
1.8 Italicizing Foreign Words 1.3(f) Italicizing foreign words and abbreviations

Chart 1.2 Words and Abbreviations Ordinarily Not Italicized in Legal Writing Text (new)

  1.4(FN) Using Large and Small Capital Letters (new)

Chart 1.3 Components Using Large and Small Capital Letters in Academic Footnotes (new)

Rule 2: Abbreviations Rule 2: Abbreviations
2.1 Use 2.1 Using Abbreviations

2.1(a) Standard and non-standard abbreviations

2.1(b) Abbreviations used for multiple words

2.2 Spacing for Abbreviations 2.2 Spacing for Abbreviations

2.2(a) Spaces between abbreviations

2.2(b) Single-letter abbreviations

2.2(c) Abbreviations in periodical names

2.2(d) Ordinal contractions treated as single-letter abbreviations

2.2(e) Symbols

2.3 Authorities Referred to in Textual Sentences 2.3 Referring to Cases in Textual Sentences

Chart 2.1 (new) Words to Abbreviate in Textual Sentences and Embedded Citations

Rule 3: Spelling and Capitalization Rule 3: Spelling and Capitalization
3.1 Words in Titles 3.1 Spelling in Source Titles and Text (new)
3.2 General Rules

Sidebar 3.1 Common Prepositions in Titles

3.2 Capitalization in Source Titles and Subtitles

3.2(a) General rule for capitalizing source titles and subtitles

Sidebar 3.1 Common Prepositions

  3.2(b) Capitalizing hyphenated words in source titles and subtitles (new)
3.2(a) Professional titles and titles of honor or respect 3.3 Capitalization in Text

3.3(d) Capitalizing professional and honorific titles of persons

3.2(b) Organization names Treated in Rule 3.3(a) Capitalizing proper nouns
3.2(c) Proper nouns 3.3(a) Capitalizing proper nouns
3.2(d) Adjectives formed from proper nouns 3.3(b) Capitalizing proper adjectives
3.2(e) Holidays, events, and epochs Not treated in 5th edition; refer to style manual
3.2(f) Numerical designations Treated in Rule 3.3(b) Capitalizing proper adjectives
3.2(g) Midword capitalizations Not treated in 5th edition; refer to style manual
3.2(h) Defined terms 3.3(c) Capitalizing defined terms
3.3 Capitalizing Specific Words 3.4 Capitalizing Specific Words

Chart 3.1 Capitalization of Specific Words (new)

3.4 Capitalization in Selected Non-English Languages Not treated in 5th edition; refer to style manual
3.5 Other Capitalization and Spelling Rules Treated in Rule 3.4 Capitalizing Specific Words
Rule 4: Numbers Rule 4: Numbers
4.1 Numbers in Citations 4.1 Numbers in Citations
4.2 Numbers in Textual Material 4.2 Numbers in Text
4.2(a) Words or numerals 4.2(a) Representing numbers as words or numerals
4.2(b) Numbers that begin a sentence 4.2(b) Numbers that begin a sentence
4.2(c) Numbers in a series and numbers in proximity Not treated in 5th edition; refer to style manual
4.2(d) Arabic rather than Roman numerals 4.2(c) Arabic and roman numerals
4.2(e) Decimals, ratios, and time Not treated in 5th edition; refer to style manual
4.2(f) Numbers and symbols Not treated in 5th edition; refer to style manual
4.2(g) Fractions Not treated in 5th edition; refer to style manual
4.2(h) Commas in numerals Not treated in 5th edition; refer to style manual
4.2(i) Additional information about numbers 4.2(d) Additional information on using numbers in text
4.3 Ordinal numbers 4.3 Ordinal Numbers
4.3(a) Definitions 4.3(a) Ordinal numbers in general
4.3(b) [Contractions] 4.3(b) Ordinal contractions
4.3(c) Punctuation Treated in Rule 4.3(b) Ordinal contractions
Rule 5: Page and Location Numbers Rule 5: Page Numbers
5.1 Initial Pages 5.1 Initial Pages
5.1(a) Definition 5.1(a) Definition of “initial page”
5.1(b) Use 5.1(b) When to refer to initial page

5.1(c) Abbreviations “p.” and “pp.”

5.2 Pinpoint Pages 5.2 Pinpoint Pages
5.2(a) Definition 5.2(a) Definition of “pinpoint page”
5.2(b) Use

 

5.2(b) When to refer to pinpoint pages

5.2(c) Preventing confusion in references to numbers in titles

Sidebar 5.1 Importance of Using Pinpoint References Sidebar 5.1 Importance of Using Pinpoint References
5.3 Citing Consecutive Pages 5.3 Consecutive Pages
5.4 Citing Scattered Pages 5.4 Scattered Pages
Sidebar 5.2 Using Hyphens, En Dashes, and “To” for Spans Sidebar 5.2 Using Hyphens, En Dashes, and “To” for Spans
5.5 Star Pagination 5.5 Star Pagination

5.5(a) Definition of “star pagination”

5.5(a) Star pages in online databases that reflect pages in print volumes 5.5(b) Star pages in online databases that reflect pages in print sources
5.5(b) Star pages in unofficial reporters that reflect pinpoint pages in official reporters 5.5(c) Star pages in unofficial print reporters that reflect pages in official print reporters
5.5(c) Star pages in online sources that do not appear in print 5.5(d) Star pages in online sources that do not appear in print
5.5(d) Star pages in star editions 5.5(e) Star pages in star editions
5.6 Passim 5.6 Passim
5.7 Location Numbers Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 6: Citing Sections and Paragraphs Rule 6: Sections and Paragraphs
6.1 General Rules 6.1 General Rules for Citing Sections and Paragraphs

6.1(a) Sources divided solely by sections or paragraphs

6.1(b) Sources divided both by pages and by sections or paragraphs

6.2 Spacing 6.2 Spacing with Section and Paragraph Symbols
6.3 Unnumbered Paragraphs 6.5 Unnumbered Paragraphs
Sidebar 6.1 Inserting the Symbols for Sections and Paragraphs Not treated in 5th edition
6.5 Distinguishing Sections from Subsections 6.1(a) Sources divided solely by sections or paragraphs
6.6 Citing Consecutive Sections or Paragraphs 6.3 Consecutive Sections or Paragraphs

6.3(a) Indicating span of specific sections or paragraphs

6.3(b) Et seq.

6.7 Citing Scattered Sections or Paragraphs 6.4 Scattered Sections or Paragraphs

6.4(a) Indicating scattered sections or paragraphs

6.8 Citing Consecutive Subdivisions within a Single Section or Paragraph 6.3(c) Indicating consecutive subdivisions within a single section or paragraph
6.9 Citing Scattered Subdivisions within a Single Section or Paragraph 6.4(b) Indicating scattered subdivisions within a single section or paragraph
6.10 Citing Multiple Subdivisions within Multiple Sections or Paragraphs 6.3(a) Indicating span of specific sections or paragraphs

6.4(a) Indicating scattered sections or paragraphs

6.11 Referring to Sections and Paragraphs in Textual Material 6.6 Referring to Sections and Paragraphs in Text
Rule 7: Citing Footnotes and Endnotes Rule 7: Footnotes and Endnotes
7.1 General Rules 7.1 General Rules for Citing Footnotes and Endnotes Within a Source
7.2 Preventing Confusion 7.2 Preventing Confusion in a Single Citation’s References to Notes and Pages
7.3 Footnotes and Endnotes in Short Citations 7.3 Citing Footnotes and Endnotes in Short Citations
Rule 8: Supplements Rule 8: Supplements
8.1 Citing Material Found Only in a Supplement 8.1 Sources Found Only in Supplements
8.2 Citing Material Found Only in the Main Volume 8.2 Sources Found Only in Main Volume of a Supplemented Work
8.3 Citing Material in Both the Main Volume and a Supplement 8.3 Sources Found in Both a Main Volume and a Supplement
8.4 Citing Material in Multiple Supplements 8.4 Sources Found in Multiple Supplements
Rule 9: Graphical Material, Appendices, and Other Subdivisions Rule 9: Graphical Material, Appendices, and Other Subdivisions
9.1 Citing Graphical Material 9.1 Graphical Material
9.2 Citing Appendices 9.3 Appendices
9.2(a) Citing an entire appendix 9.3(a) Entire appendix
9.2(b) Citing material within an appendix 9.3(b) Material within an appendix
9.3 Citing Other Subdivisions 9.4 Other Subdivisions
9.4 Preventing Confusion 9.2 Preventing Confusion in References to Graphical Material
Rule 10: Internal Cross-References Rule 10: Internal Cross-References
10.1 Definition 10.1 Definition of “Internal Cross-Reference”
10.2 Material That May Be Cross-Referenced 10.1 Definition of “Internal Cross-Reference”
10.3 Supra and Infra 10.2(a)(FN) Indicating location of cross-references with supra and infra
10.3(a) Supra 10.2(a)(FN) Indicating location of cross-references with supra and infra
10.3(b) Infra 10.2(a)(FN) Indicating location of cross-references with supra and infra
10.3(c) Typeface 10.2(a)(FN) Indicating location of cross-references with supra and infra
10.4 Format for Internal Cross-References 10.2(FN) Constructing an Internal Cross-Reference

10.2(a)(FN) Indicating location of cross-references with supra and infra

10.4(a) Be specific 10.2(a)(FN) Indicating location of cross-references with supra and infra
10.4(b) Where reference appears 10.2(a)(FN) Indicating location of cross-references with supra and infra
10.4(c) Explanatory parenthetical 10.2(b)(FN) Adding explanatory parentheticals to cross-references
Sidebar 10.1 The Two Uses of Supra 11.4(a) Definition of “supra
Rule 11: Introduction to Full and Short Citation Formats Rule 11: Full and Short Citation Formats
11.1 Full Citation Format 11.1 Full Citation Format
11.1(a) Definition 11.1(a) Definition of “full citation”
11.1(b) Components of a full citation 11.1(b) Components of a full citation
11.1(c) Use 11.1(a) Definition of “full citation”

11.1(c) Frequency of full citation to source in practice-based document

  11.1(d)(FN) Frequency of full citation to source in academic footnotes (new)
11.2 Short Citation Format 11.2 Short Citation Format
11.2(a) Definition 11.2 Short Citation Format
11.2(b) Use 11.2 Short Citation Format
11.3 Id. as a Short Citation 11.3 Id. as a Short Citation
11.3(a) Definition 11.3(a) Definition of “id.
Sidebar 11.1 Id. Versus Ibid. Not treated in 5th edition
11.3(b) Use 11.3(c) Appropriate uses of id.
11.3(c) Typeface

11.3(d) Capitalization

11.3(b) Typeface and capitalization of id.
11.3(e) Id. used with pinpoint references 11.3(d) Id. followed by pinpoint reference
11.3(f) Referring to shorter works within a collection 11.3(e) Using id. to refer to a shorter work within a collection
11.3(g) Intervening sources 11.3(f) Intervening sources
11.4 Supra as a Short Citation 11.4 Supra in a Short Citation
11.4(a) Definition 11.4(a) Definition of “supra
11.4(b) Use 11.4(b) Appropriate uses of supra in practice-based documents

11.4(d)(FN) Appropriate uses of supra in academic footnotes (new)

11.4(c) Format 11.4(c) Format of short citations using supra in practice-based documents

11.4(e)(FN) Format of short citations using supra in academic footnotes (new)

11.4(d) “Hereinafter” and supra 11.5 Designating a Shortened Reference with “Hereinafter”

11.5(a) Function of “hereinafter” designation

11.5(b) Format of “hereinafter” designation

11.5(c)(FN) Appropriate use of “hereinafter” designation in academic footnotes (new)

Rule 12: Cases Rule 12: Cases
12.1 Full Citation Format 12.1 Full Citation Format for Cases
12.2 Case Name 12.2 Case Name
12.2(a) Typeface and punctuation 12.2(a) Typeface for case names

12.2(a)(1) Typeface for case names in practice-based documents (new)
12.2(a)(2)(FN) Typeface for case names in academic footnotes (new)

12.2(b) Case cited

12.2(b)(1) Consolidated actions

12.2(b)(2) Two names for one case

12.2(b) Consolidated cases and cases with two names
Sidebar 12.1 Distinguishing Case Names from Party Names Sidebar 12.1 Distinguishing Case Names from Party Names
12.2(c) Parties cited 12.2(c) Parties cited
12.2(d) Individual as party 12.2(d) Individual as party

12.2(d)(1) Surname

12.2(d)(2) Family names

12.2(d)(3) Initials of individual

12.2(e) Organization as party 12.2(e) Organization as party

12.2(e)(1) Name of organization

12.2(e)(2) Abbreviated words in organization name

12.2(e)(3) Commonly known initials in organization name

Chart 12.1 Common Business Designations (new)

12.2(f) Union as party 12.2(f) Union as party
12.2(g) United States as party 12.2(g) United States as party
12.2(h) State or commonwealth as party 12.2(h) State or commonwealth as party
12.2(i) City or municipality as party 12.2(j) City or municipality as party
12.2(j) Geographical locations 12.2(i) Other geographical references in party names
12.2(k) Commissioner of Internal Revenue as party 12.2(l) Commissioner of Internal Revenue as party
12.2(l) Individual government official as party 12.2(m) Public official as party
12.2(m) Other governmental parties 12.2(k) Other governmental entity as party
Sidebar 12.2 Public Official Named as Party Sidebar 12.2 Public Official Named as Party
12.2(n) Property as party 12.2(n) Real or personal property as party
12.2(o) Relator as party 12.2(o) Relator as party; procedural phrase ex rel.
12.2(p) Procedural phrases in case names 12.2(p) Procedural phrases in re and ex parte; procedural phrases in bankruptcy case names

12.2(p)(1) Procedural phrases in re and ex parte in general

12.2(p)(2) Procedural phrases in bankruptcy case names

Note: Procedural phrase ex rel. now treated in Rule 12.2(0)

12.2(q) “The” as first word of a party’s name 12.2(r) “The” as first word of party’s name
Sidebar 12.3 Explanation of Commonly Used Procedural Phrases Treated in Rules 12.2(o), Relator as party; procedural phrase ex rel., and 12.2(p), Procedural phrases in re and ex parte; procedural phrases in bankruptcy case names
12.2(r) Popular case names 12.2(q) Case known by popular name
12.2(s) Cases with multiple decisions 12.2(s) Cases with multiple decisions
12.3 Reporter Volume 12.3 Reporter Volume
12.4 Reporter Abbreviation 12.4 Reporter Name
12.4(a) Placement 12.4(a) Abbreviation and series
12.4(b) General rules regarding which reporter or reporters to cite 12.4(b) Reporter selection

12.4(b)(1) Selecting reporter for citation in court documents

12.4(b)(2) Selecting reporter for citation in non-court documents

Chart 12.1 Common Reporter Abbreviations Chart 12.2 Reporter Name Abbreviations
12.4(c) Reporter for United States Supreme Court cases

 

12.4(b)(2) Selecting reporter for citation in non-court documents (cases decided since 1874)

12.4(b)(4) Cases in nominative reporters

12.4(d) Parallel citations and court reporters

12.4(d)(1) Definition

12.4(d)(2) Use

12.4(d)(3) Format for parallel citations

12.4(c) Indicating reporters in parallel citations
Sidebar 12.4 Names and Dates of Early United States Supreme Court Reporters Sidebar 12.3 Names and Dates of Early United States Supreme Court Nominative Reporters
Sidebar 12.5 Locating Parallel Citations Sidebar 12.4 Locating Parallel Citations and Determining Pagination
12.5 Page Numbers 12.5 Page Numbers
12.5(a) Initial page numbers 12.5(a) Initial page number
12.5(b) Pinpoint references 12.5(b) Pinpoint references in general
12.5(c) Pinpoint references and parallel citations 12.5(c) Pinpoint references in parallel citations
12.5(d) Dissenting and concurring opinions 12.5(d) Pinpoint references in dissenting or concurring opinions
12.6 Court Abbreviation 12.6 Court Abbreviation
12.6(a) General rules 12.6(a) General rule for identifying court of decision

12.6(c) Additional jurisdictional information in court name (new)

12.6(c)(1) State court abbreviations

12.6(c)(2) Federal courts in general

12.6(b) Counties, departments, districts, and divisions  12.6(c)(1) State court abbreviations
12.6(c) Fifth Circuit split

12.6(c)(1) History

12.6(c)(2) Binding precedent in the Eleventh Circuit

12.6(c)(3) Binding precedent in the Fifth Circuit

12.6(c)(4) Citation format

   12.6(c)(3) Fifth Circuit split
12.6(d) United States Supreme Court 12.6(b) Identifying United States Supreme Court
12.6(e) Parallel citations and court abbreviations 12.6(d) Parallel citations and court abbreviations
12.6(f) Early Federal Circuit Cases

12.6(g) Early Federal District Courts Exercising Appellate Jurisdiction

12.6(h) Other Early Courts

   12.6(c)(4) Historic federal courts
12.7 Date

12.7(a) General rule

12.7(b) Dates for cases in reporters

12.7(c) Dates for cases in other sources

12.7 Date of Decision
12.8 Subsequent History 12.8 Subsequent History
12.8(a) Actions to include 12.8(a) Subsequent history to include

Chart 12.3 Subsequent History Designations (new)

Sidebar 12.6 Information about Denials of Certiorari Sidebar 12.5 Information about Denials of Certiorari
12.8(b) Actions to exclude 12.8(b) Subsequent history to ignore

Chart 12.3 Subsequent History Designations (new)

12.8(c) Placement and format of subsequent history 12.8(c) Placement, format, and components of subsequent history designation

12.8(f) Subsequent history in same year as original decision (new)

12.9 Prior History

12.9(a) Use

12.9(b) Format

12.9 Prior History

Chart 12.4 Prior History Designations (new)

12.10 Additional Rules Concerning Subsequent and Prior History Treated in Rules 12.8(c), Placement, format, and components of subsequent history designation, 12.9, Prior History, and Chart 12.4, Prior History Designations
12.10(a) Explanation of history 12.8(a) Subsequent history to include
12.10(b) Case name changed on appeal 12.8(d) Case name changed on appeal
12.10(c) Order of multiple histories 12.8(c) Placement, format, and components of subsequent history designation
12.10(d) Multiple decisions by a single court  12.8(c) Placement, format, and components of subsequent history designation
12.10(e) Relation to parenthetical information 12.8(g) Relation to parenthetical information
12.10(f) No effect on order of authorities 36.2(e) Position of case unaffected by subsequent or prior history
12.10(g) No effect on use of id. 11.3(f) Intervening sources
12.11 Parenthetical Information 12.10 Parenthetical Information
12.11(a) Dissenting, concurring, and plurality opinions 12.10(a) Dissenting, concurring, and plurality opinions
Chart 12.2 Abbreviations for Titles of Judges and Other Judicial Officials Chart 12.5 Abbreviations for Titles of Judges and Other Judicial Officials
12.11(b) Weight of authority 12.10(b) Parenthetical reference to weight of authority
12.11(c) Explanatory parentheticals 12.10(c) Other uses for explanatory parentheticals
12.12 Cases Published Only on LexisNexis or Westlaw

12.12(a) Format

12.12(b) Pinpoint references

12.12(c) Parallel citations

12.12(d) Docket Numbers

12.13 Non-Precedential or “Unpublished” Cases

12.13(b) Unpublished cases available in commercial databases

12.13 Cases Not Yet Reported 12.12 Cases Not Yet Available in Print Reporter
12.14 Table Cases and Federal Appendix Cases

12.14(a) Cases in reporter tables

12.14(b) Cases in Federal Appendix

12.14(b)(1) Background

12.14(b)(2) Format

12.11 Table Cases

12.13(a) Unpublished cases available in the Federal Appendix reporter

12.15 Cases on the Internet

12.15(a) Use

12.15(b) Format

12.15(c) Pinpoint reference

12.16 Cases on the World Wide Web
12.16 Neutral Citations

12.16(a) Definition

12.16(b) Use

12.16(c) Format

12.17 Neutral Citations
12.17 Cases Published Only in a Looseleaf Service 12.14 Cases Published Only in Looseleaf Services
12.18 Unreported Cases

12.18(a) Format

12.18(b) Pinpoint reference

12.15 Cases Available Only in Slip Opinions
12.19 Court Documents, Transcripts, and Records 12.18 Court Documents in a Case
Sidebar 12.7 Court Rules Prohibiting or Limiting Citation of Unreported Cases in Briefs Sidebar 12.6 Court Rules Prohibiting or Limiting Citation of Unreported Cases
12.20 Short Citation Format 12.19 Short Citation Formats for Cases
12.20(a) Id. as the preferred short citation 12.19(a) Id. as the preferred short citation
12.20(b) Short citation format when the case name, or part of the case name, is not included in the textual sentence 12.19(b) Short citation format when textual sentence has no reference to case name
12.20(c) Short citation format when the case name, or part of the case name, is included in the textual sentence 12.19(c) Short citation format when textual sentence includes all or part of case name
12.20(d) Short citation formats for online cases 12.19(e) Short citation format for cases in commercial databases
12.20(e) Short citation formats for unpublished cases 12.19(f) Short citation format for slip opinions
12.20(f) Short citation formats for parallel citations 12.19(d) Short citation format for cases in parallel citations
  12.19(g)(FN) Short citation format for cases in academic footnotes
Rule 13: Constitutions Rule 13: Constitutions
13.1 Which Source to Cite 13.1 Which Source to Cite
13.2 Full Citation Format for Constitutions Currently in Force 13.2 Full Citation Format for Constitutions Currently in Force
13.2(a) Name of constitution 13.2(a) Name of constitution
13.2(b) Pinpoint reference 13.2(b) Pinpoint references in citations to constitutions
13.2(c) Date 13.2(c) Date references in citations to constitutions
  13.2(d) Constitution published in commercial database or official website (new)
  13.2(e)(FN) Citing constitutions in academic footnotes (new)
13.2(d) Other information Not treated in 5th edition
13.3 Full Citation Format for Constitutions No Longer in Force 13.3 Full Citation Format for Constitutions or Specific Constitutional Provisions No Longer in Force

13.3(a) Historical constitutions (new)

13.3(b) Constitutional provisions no longer in force (new)

13.4 Short Citation Format 13.4 Short Citation Format for Constitutions
Sidebar 13.1 Referring to Constitutions in Text Sidebar 13.1 Referring to Constitutions in Text
Rule 14: Statutory Codes, Session Laws, and Slip Laws Rule 14: Statutory Codes and Session Laws
14.1 Which Source to Cite 14.1 Sources of Statutory Law
14.2 Full Citation, Print Format for Federal Statutes Currently in Force 14.2 Full Citation Format for Federal Statutes Currently in Force
14.2(a) Title number 14.2(b) Title number
14.2(b) Code abbreviation 14.2(c) Abbreviated name of code
14.2(c) Section symbol

14.2(d) Section number

14.2(d) Sections and subsections in federal statutes
14.2(e) Statutory appendices and other subdivisions (new)
14.2(e) Publisher 14.2(f) Publication parenthetical

14.2(f)(1) Code publisher; commercial database name (new)

14.2(f) Date 14.2(f) Publication parenthetical

14.2(f)(2) Publication date of main volume or supplement; database currency (new)

Sidebar 14.1 Date of United States Code Sidebar 14.1 Publication Dates of Official and Unofficial Versions of the United States Code
14.2(g) Name of act 14.2(a) Official or popular name of statute
14.2(h) Explanatory parentheticals 14.2(g) Explanatory parentheticals in statutory citations
  14.2(h)(FN) Full citations to federal statutes in academic footnotes (new)
14.3 Full Citation, Print Format for Federal Statutes No Longer in Force 14.3 Full Citation Format for Federal Statutes No Longer in Force

14.3(a) Federal statutes repealed or amended (new)

14.3(b) Federal statutes invalidated or declared unconstitutional (new)

14.4 Full Citation, Print Format for State Statutes 14.4 Full Citation Format for State Statutes

14.4(a) Components of full citation to state statute (new)

14.4(b) State code with subject-matter designations (new)

  14.4(c)(FN) Full citations to state statutes in academic footnotes (new)
14.5 Statutes Available on Electronic Databases 14.2(f)(2) Publication date of main volume or supplement; database currency (new)
14.6 Short Citation, Print Format for Federal and State Statutes 14.5 Short Citation Formats for Federal and State Statutes

14.5(a) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for federal or state statute (new)

14.5(b) Other short citation formats for federal or state statutes (new)

Sidebar 14.2 Referring to Statutes in Text Not treated in 5th edition
14.7 Full Citation Format for Federal Session Laws Currently in Force 14.6 Full Citation Format for Federal Session Laws Currently in Force
14.7(a) Law abbreviation 14.6(b) Abbreviations for public laws and private laws
14.7(b) Law number 14.6(c) Public or private law number
14.7(c) Volume number

14.7(d) Abbreviation for Statutes at Large

14.6(d) Statutes at Large
14.7(e) Pages

14.7(f) Pinpoint references

14.6(e) Initial page and pinpoint references
14.7(g) Date 14.6(f) Enactment or effective date
14.7(h) Title 14.6(a) Title of act
14.7(i) Explanatory parenthetical Not treated in 5th edition
  14.6(g) Information regarding codification of session law (new)
  14.6(h)(FN) Full citations to federal session laws in academic footnotes (new)
14.8 Full Citation Format for Federal Session Laws No Longer in Force 14.7 Full Citation Format for Federal Session Laws No Longer in Force
14.9 Full Citation Format for State Session Laws 14.8 Full Citation Format for State Session Laws
14.10 Short Citation Format for Federal and State Session Laws 14.9 Short Citation Formats for Federal and State Session Laws

14.9(a) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for session law (new)

14.9(b) Other short citation formats for session laws (new)

  14.9(c)(FN) Short citation formats for session laws in academic footnotes (new)
14.11 Full Citation Format for Federal Slip Laws 14.6 Full Citation Format for Federal Session Laws Currently in Force
14.12 Full Citation Format for State Slip Laws 14.8 Full Citation Format for State Session Laws
14.13 Short Citation Format for Federal and State Slip Laws 14.9 Short Citation Formats for Federal and State Session Laws
Rule 15: Other Federal Legislative Materials Rule 15: Other Legislative Materials
15.1 Full Citation Format for Federal Unenacted Bills, Unenacted Simple Resolutions, and Unenacted Concurrent Resolutions 15.1 Full Citation Format for Federal Unenacted Measures
15.1(a) Abbreviation for type of bill or resolution 15.1(b) Designation of Measure
Sidebar 15.1 Types of Proposed Laws Sidebar 15.1 Forms of Legislative Measures
15.1(b) Number 15.1(c) Number of measure
15.1(c) Congress number 15.1(d) Congress number
15.1(d) Session number 15.1(f) Year of publication, version of measure, and session number
15.1(e) Pinpoint reference 15.1(e) Pinpoint reference
15.1(f) Date 15.1(f) Year of publication, version of measure, and session number
15.1(g) Title 15.1(a) Title of measure
15.1(h) Parenthetical information  15.1(f) Year of publication, version of measure, and session number
  15.1(g) Parallel citations to other publication sources of legislative measures (new)
15.2 Short Citation Format for Unenacted Bills and Resolutions 15.2 Short Citation Formats for Federal Unenacted Measures

15.2(a) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for unenacted measure (new)

15.2(b) Other short citation format for unenacted measure (new)

  15.2(c)(FN) Short citation formats for federal unenacted measures in academic footnotes (new)
15.3 Enacted Bills and Joint Resolutions 15.3 Citation Formats for Federal Enacted Bills and Joint Resolutions

15.3(a) Full citation format for federal enacted bills and joint resolutions (new)

15.3(b) Short citation formats for federal enacted bills and joint resolutions (new)

15.3(b)(1) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for enacted bill or joint resolution

15.3(b)(2) Other short citation format for enacted bill or joint resolution (new)

     15.3(b)(3)(FN) Short citation formats for enacted bills or joint resolutions in academic footnotes (new)
15.4 Full Citation Format for Enacted Simple and Enacted Concurrent Resolutions 15.4 Citation Formats for Federal Enacted Simple and Concurrent Resolutions

15.4(a) Full citation format for federal enacted simple and concurrent resolutions

15.5 Short Citation Format for Enacted Simple and Concurrent Resolutions 15.4(b) Short citation formats for federal enacted simple and concurrent resolutions

15.4(b)(1) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for enacted simple or concurrent resolution (new)

15.4(b)(2) Other short citation format for enacted simple or concurrent resolution (new)

  15.4(b)(3)(FN) Short citation formats for enacted simple or concurrent resolutions in academic footnotes (new)
15.6 Proposed House and Senate Amendments 15.1(f) Year of publication, version of measure, and session number
15.7 Full Citation Format for Congressional Hearings 15.5 Full Citation Format for Congressional Hearings
15.7(a) House abbreviation Not treated in 5th edition
15.7(b) Name of committee or subcommittee 15.5(b) Name of committee or subcommittee
15.7(c) Title and bill number 15.5(a) Title of committee hearing, designation of measure, and measure number
15.7(d) Congress number 15.5(c) Congress number
15.7(e) Session number 15.5(e) Year of publication; session number
15.7(f) Pinpoint reference 15.5(d) Pinpoint reference
15.7(g) Date 15.5(e) Year of publication; session number
15.7(h) Parenthetical information 15.5(f) Parenthetical information about congressional hearings
15.8 Short Citation Format for Congressional Hearings 15.6 Short Citation Formats for Congressional Hearings
15.8(a) Documents without footnotes 15.6(a) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for congressional hearing

15.6(b) Other short citation format for congressional hearing

15.8(b) Documents with footnotes 15.6(c)(FN) Short citation formats for congressional hearing in academic footnotes
15.9 Full Citation Format for Numbered Congressional Reports, Documents, and Prints 15.7 Full Citation Format for Numbered Congressional Reports and Documents
15.9(a) Abbreviation for type of document 15.7(b) Abbreviation for numbered report or document
15.9(b) Document number 15.7(c) Report or document number
15.9(c) Pinpoint reference 15.7(d) Pinpoint references
15.9(d) Date 15.7(e) Year of publication; session designation for older Congresses
15.9(e) Author and title 15.7(a) Author and title option
15.9(f) Parenthetical information Not treated in 5th edition
15.9(g) Source location Not treated in 5th edition
  15.7(f) Parallel citation to U.S.C.C.A.N. or other sources (new)
  15.7(g)(FN) Full citation format for numbered congressional report or document in academic footnotes (new)
15.10 Short Citation Format for Numbered Congressional Reports, Documents, and Prints 15.8 Short Citation Formats for Numbered Congressional Reports and Documents

15.8(a) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for numbered congressional report or document

15.8(b) Other short citation format for numbered congressional report or document

  15.8(c)(FN) Short citation formats for numbered congressional report or document in academic footnotes (new)
15.11 Unnumbered Reports, Documents, and Prints 15.9 Full Citation Format for Unnumbered Reports, Documents, and Committee Prints

15.9(a) Institutional author and title (new)

  15.9(b)(FN) Full citation format for unnumbered report, document, or committee print in academic footnotes (new)
15.12 Full Citation Format for Congressional Debates Occurring after 1873 15.10 Citation Formats for Congressional Debates

15.10(a) Full citation format for post-1873 congressional debates

15.12(a) Volume number

15.12(b) Abbreviation for Congressional Record

15.10(a)(2) Volume number and abbreviation for Congressional Record
15.12(c) Pages 15.10(a)(3) Pinpoint pages
15.12(d) Edition and date 15.10(a)(4) Edition and date
15.12(e) Title 15.10(a)(1) Title of debate
  15.10(a)(5) Parenthetical information (new)
  15.10(a)(6)(FN) Full citation format for post-1873 congressional debate in academic footnotes
15.13 Short Citation Format for Congressional Debates Occurring after 1873 15.10(b) Short citation formats for post-1873 congressional debates

15.10(b)(1) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for post-1873 congressional debate

15.10(b)(2) Other short citation format for post-1873 congressional debate

     15.10(b)(3)(FN) Short citation formats for post-1873 congressional debate in academic footnotes (new)
15.14 Full Citation Format for Congressional Debates through 1873 15.10(c) Full citation format for pre-1874 congressional debates

15.10(c)(1) Publication sources and formats (new)

     15.10(c)(2) Full citation format for pre-1874 congressional debate in academic footnotes (new)
15.15 Short Citation Format for Congressional Debates through 1873 15.10(d) Short citation formats for pre-1874 congressional debates

15.10(d)(1) Appropriate use of id. for pre-1874 congressional debate

15.10(d)(2) Other short citation format for pre-1874 congressional debate

     15.10(d)(3)(FN) Short citation formats for pre-1874 congressional debate in academic footnotes (new)
15.16 Congressional Journals 15.11 Citation Formats for Congressional Journals 15.11(a) Components of full citation to congressional journal

15.11(c) Short citation formats for congressional journals

15.11(c)(1) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for congressional journal

15.11(c)(2) Other short citation format for congressional journal

  15.11(b)(FN) Full citation format for congressional journal in academic footnotes (new)
  15.11(c)(3)(FN) Short citation formats for congressional journal in academic footnotes (new)
15.17 United States Code Congressional and Administrative News 15.7(f) Parallel citation to U.S.C.C.A.N. or other sources (new)
15.18 Declaration of Independence 15.12 The Declaration of Independence

15.12(a) Components of citation to The Declaration of Independence

  15.12(b)(FN) Citation to The Declaration of Independence in academic footnotes (new)
15.19 Other Legislative Materials Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 16: Other State Legislative Materials Rule 15: Other Legislative Materials
16.1 Full Citation Format for State Unenacted Bills, Unenacted Files, and Unenacted Resolutions 15.13 Full Citation Format for State Unenacted Measures
16.1(a) State abbreviation 15.13(e) State and date parenthetical
16.1(b) State abbreviation for type of bill, file, or resolution

16.1(c) State bill, file, or resolution number

15.13(b) Designation and number of state measure
16.1(d) State legislature designation

16.1(e) State session designation

15.13(c) State legislature and session designations
16.1(f) Pinpoint reference 15.13(d) Pinpoint references
16.1(g) Date 15.13(e) State and date parenthetical
16.1(h) Title 15.13(a) Title of state measure
16.1(i) Parenthetical information Not treated in 5th edition
  15.13(f) Parallel citations to official online or unofficial commercial database sources (new)
16.2 Short Citation Format for State Unenacted Bills, Unenacted Files, and Unenacted Resolutions 15.14 Short Citation Formats for State Unenacted Measures

15.14(a) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for state unenacted measure

15.14(b) Other short citation format for state unenacted measure

  15.14(c)(FN) Short citation formats for state unenacted measure in academic footnotes (new)
16.3 State Enacted Bills, Files, and Resolutions 15.15 Citation Formats for State Enacted Measures and Joint Resolutions

15.15(a) Full citation formats for state enacted measures and joint resolutions

  15.15(b) Short citation formats for state enacted measures and joint resolutions (new)
16.4 Full Citation Format for State Legislative Hearings

16.4(a) State abbreviation

16.4(b) State house abbreviation

16.4(c) Name of state committee or subcommittee

16.4(d) State title and bill number

16.4(e) State legislature designation

16.4(f) State session designation

16.4(g) Pinpoint reference

16.4(h) Date

15.16 Citation Formats for State Legislative Hearings

15.16(a) Components of full citation to state legislative hearing

16.4(i) Parenthetical information Not treated in 5th edition
16.5 Short Citation Format for State Legislative Hearings

16.5(a) Documents without footnotes

15.16(b) Short citation formats for state legislative hearings
16.5(b) Documents with footnotes 15.16(c) Short citation formats for state legislative hearing in academic footnotes
16.6 Full Citation Format for State Legislative Reports, Documents, and Prints 15.17 Full Citation Format for State Legislative Reports and Documents
16.6(a) State abbreviation 15.17(f) State and date parenthetical
16.6(b) Abbreviation for type of document 15.17(b) Abbreviation for type of report or document
16.6(c) Number

16.6(d) State legislature designation

15.17(c) Legislature-document number
16.6(e) State session designation 15.17(d) State session designation
16.6(f) Pinpoint reference 15.17(e) Pinpoint references
16.6(g) Date 15.17(f) State and date parenthetical
16.6(h) Committee name, author, and title 15.17(a) Committee name, author, and title option
16.6(i) Parenthetical information Not treated in 5th edition
  15.17(g)(FN) Full citation format for state legislative report or document in academic footnotes (new)
16.7 Short Citation Format for State Legislative Reports, Documents, and Prints Not treated in 5th edition
16.8 Full Citation Format for State Legislative Debates 15.18 Full Citation Format for State Legislative Debates
16.8(a) State abbreviation 15.18(e) State and date parenthetical
16.8(b) State house abbreviation 15.18(a) Chamber abbreviation
16.8(c) Description or published location of debate 15.18(b) Title or description of debate; publication source
16.8(d) State legislature designation

16.8(e) State session designation

15.18(c) State legislature and session designations
16.8(f) Pinpoint reference 15.18(d) Pinpoint references
16.8(g) Date 15.18(e) State and date parenthetical
16.8(h) Location for unpublished debates 15.18(f) Location of transcript or recording of unpublished debate
  15.18(g)(FN) Full citation format for state legislative debate in academic footnotes (new)
16.9 Short Citation Format for State Legislative Debates 15.19 Short Citation Formats for State Legislative Debates

15.19(a) Short citation using id. and other formats

  15.19(b) Short citation formats for state legislative debate in academic footnotes (new)
16.10 State Legislative Journals 15.20 Citation Formats for State Legislative Journals

15.20(a) Components of full citation to state legislative journal

15.20(b) Short citation formats to state legislative journal

  15.20(c)(FN) Short citation formats to state legislative journal in academic footnotes (new)
16.11 Other State Legislative Materials Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 17: Court Rules, Ethics Rules and Opinions, and Jury Instructions Rule 16: Court Rules, Ethics Opinions, and Jury Instructions
17.1 Full Citation Format for Rules Currently in Force 16.1 Court Rules

16.1(a) Full citation format for court rules currently in force

17.1(a) Code abbreviation 16.1(b) Code or rule compilation abbreviation
17.1(b) Rule number 16.1(c) Rule number and subdivisions
17.2 Full Citation Format for Rules No Longer in Force 16.1(d) Court rules no longer in force
  16.1(e)(FN) Full citation format for court rule in academic footnotes (new)
17.3 Short Citation Format 16.1(f) Short citation formats for court rules
17.4 Full Citation Format for Ethics Opinions 16.2 Ethics Opinions

16.2(a) Full citation format for ethics opinions

17.5 Short Citation Format for Ethics Opinions 16.2(b) Short citation formats for ethics opinions
17.6 Full Citation Formats for Jury Instructions 16.3 Jury Instructions
17.6(a) Pattern, standard, or approved instructions 16.3(a) Full citation format for pattern, standard, or approved instructions
  16.3(b)(FN) Full citation format for pattern, standard, or approved instructions in academic footnotes (new)
17.6(b) Unofficial jury instructions    16.3(c) Full citation format for unofficial jury instructions
  16.3(d)(FN) Full citation format for unofficial jury instructions in academic footnotes (new)
17.7 Short Citation Formats for Jury Instructions 16.3(e) Short citation formats for jury instructions
  16.3(f)(FN) Short citation formats for jury instructions in academic footnotes (new)
Rule 18: Local Ordinances Rule 17: Ordinances
18.1 Full Citation Format for Codified Ordinances 17.1 Full Citation Format for Codified Ordinances
18.1(a) Abbreviated name of code

18.1(b) State abbreviation

17.1(a) Names of political subdivision and code
18.1(c) Pinpoint reference 17.1(b) Pinpoint references
18.1(d) Date 17.1(c) Publication parenthetical; official and unofficial online sources
18.2 Full Citation [Format] for Uncodified Ordinances 17.2 Full Citation Format for Uncodified Ordinances
Sidebar 18.1 Locating Ordinances on the Internet Not treated in 5th edition
18.2(a) Name of political subdivision and state abbreviation 17.2(a) Name of political subdivision and state
18.2(b) Ordinance number or name 17.2(b) Number or name of uncodified ordinance
18.2(c) Date 17.2(c) Date or enactment of uncodified ordinance
  17.3(FN) Full Citation Format for Codified or Uncodified Ordinance in Academic Footnotes (new)
18.3 Short Citation Format for Codified and Uncodified Ordinances 17.4 Short Citation Formats for Codified and Uncodified Ordinances

17.4(a) Appropriate use of id. as short citation for ordinance

17.4(b) Other short citation formats for ordinances

  17.4(c)(FN) Short citation formats for ordinance in academic footnotes (new)
Rule 19: Federal Administrative and Executive Materials Rule 18: Administrative and Executive Materials
19.1 Full Citation Format for Code of Federal Regulations 18.1 Full Citation Format for the Code of Federal Regulations
19.1(a) Title number

19.1(b) C.F.R. abbreviation

18.1(a) Title number
19.1(c) Pinpoint reference 18.1(b) Pinpoint references
19.1(d) Date

19.1(d)(1) Current print or electronic version

19.1(d)(2) C.F.R. on unofficial electronic databases

19.1(d)(3) Historical references

18.1(c) Publication date parenthetical
  18.1(d) Treasury Regulations; Federal Acquisition Regulations (new)
19.1(e) Title 18.1(e) Name of rule or regulation
Sidebar 19.1 Determining the Date of Current C.F.R. Volumes Sidebar 18.1 Currency of C.F.R. Volumes
19.2 Short Citation Format for Code of Federal Regulations 18.2 Short Citation Formats for the Code of Federal Regulations

18.2(a) Short citation formats for C.F.R.

  18.2(b)(FN) Short citation formats for C.F.R. in academic footnotes (new)
19.3 Full Citation Format for Federal Register 18.3 Full Citation Format for the Federal Register
19.3(a) Volume number

19.3(b) Federal Register abbreviation

18.3(b) Volume number and abbreviation
19.3(c) Pages 18.3(c) Initial page and pinpoint references
19.3(d) Date 18.3(d) Exact date; indicating status of proposed rule or regulation
19.3(e) Citation to C.F.R. 18.3(e) Cross-reference to C.F.R.
19.3(f) Title 18.3(a) Title of rule or regulation
19.4 Short Citation Format for Federal Register 18.4 Short Citation Formats for the Federal Register

18.4(a) Short citation formats for the Federal Register

  18.4(b)(FN) Short citation formats for the Federal Register in academic footnotes (new)
19.5 Full Citation Format for Federal Agency Decisions 18.5 Full Citation Format for Federal Agency Decisions
19.5(a) Case name 18.5(a) Case name
19.5(b) Volume number

19.5(c) Reporter abbreviation

18.5(b) Volume number and reporter abbreviation
19.5(d) Subdivisions 18.5(c) Subdivisions
19.5(e) Agency abbreviation 18.5(e) Agency abbreviation
19.5(f) Date 18.5(d) Date parenthetical
19.5(g) Federal agency decisions published only on LexisNexis or Westlaw Not treated in 5th edition
19.5(h) Federal agency decisions on the Internet Not treated in 5th edition
19.5(i) Other information Not treated in 5th edition
  18.5(f) Arbitrator (new)
  18.5(g)(FN) Full citation format for federal agency decision in academic footnotes (new)
19.6 Short Citation Format for Agency Decisions 18.6 Short Citation Formats for Federal Agency Decisions
19.7 Full Citation Format for Attorney General Opinions and Justice Department Office of Legal Counsel Opinions 18.7 Full Citation Format for Advisory Opinions
Sidebar 19.2 Purpose of Attorney General Opinions Sidebar 18.3 Purpose of Advisory Opinions
19.7(a) Volume number

19.7(b) Type of opinion

18.7(b) Volume number and source abbreviation
19.7(c) Pages 18.7(c) Initial page and pinpoint references
19.7(d) Date 18.7(d) Publication date parenthetical
19.7(e) Title 18.7(a) Title
19.8 Short Citation Format for Attorney General Opinions and Justice Department Office of Legal Counsel Opinions 18.8 Short Citation Formats for Advisory Opinions
19.9 Full Citation Format for Executive Orders, Proclamations, Determinations, Memoranda, Notices, and Reorganization Plans 18.9 Full Citation Format for Executive Documents
19.9(a) Document abbreviation

19.9(b) Document number

18.9(a) Document identification and document number
19.9(c) Title number and source abbreviation 18.9(b) Source abbreviation
19.9(d) Subdivisions 18.9(c) Subdivisions
19.9(e) Date 18.9(d) Publication date parenthetical
19.9(f) Title 18.9(a) Document identification and document number
19.9(g) Document reprinted in other sources 18.9(e) Parallel citation to document reprint
  18.9(f)(FN) Full citation format for executive document in academic footnotes (new)
19.10 Short Citation Format for Executive Orders, Proclamations, Determinations, Memoranda, Notices, and Reorganization Plans 18.10 Short Citation Formats for Executive Documents
19.11 Executive Agreements 18.11 Citation Formats for Executive Agreements
19.12 Other Presidential Documents Not treated in 5th edition
19.13 Patents

19.13(a) Full Citation Format for Patents

19.13(b) Short Citation Format for Patents

18.12 Citation Formats for Patents
19.14 Other Administrative and Executive Materials 18.18 Other Administrative and Executive Materials
Sidebar 19.3 Citing Tax Materials Sidebar 18.2 Citing Federal Tax Materials
Rule 20: State Administrative and Executive Materials Rule 18: Administrative and Executive Materials
20.1 Full Citation [Format] for State Administrative Codes

20.2 Short Citation Format for State Administrative Codes

18.13 Citation Formats for State Administrative Codes
20.3 Full Citation Format for State Administrative Registers

20.4 Short Citation Format for State Administrative Registers

18.14 Citation Formats for State Administrative Registers
20.5 Full Citation Format for State Agency Decisions 18.15 Citation Formats for State Agency Decisions
20.7 Full Citation Format for State Attorney General Opinions

20.8 Short Citation Format for State Attorney General Opinions

18.16 Citation Formats for State Advisory Opinions
20.9 State Executive Materials 18.17 Citation Formats for State Executive Materials
20.10 Other State Administrative and Executive Materials 18.18 Other Administrative and Executive Materials
Rule 21: Treaties and Conventions, International Sources, and Foreign Sources Rule 19: Treaties, Conventions, and Agreements; International and Foreign Law Sources
21.1 Full Citation Format for Treaties and Conventions Currently in Force 19.1 Full Citation Format for Treaties, Conventions, and Agreements Currently in Force

19.1(a) Bilateral treaty, convention, or agreement (new)

19.1(b) Multi-lateral treaty, convention, or agreement (new)

21.1(a) Title 19.1(c) Title of treaty, convention, or agreement
21.1(b) Pinpoint reference 19.1(d) Pinpoint references
  19.1(e) Signatory parties (new)
21.1(c) Date 19.1(f) Date of signing
21.1(d) Treaty source

21.1(d)(1) Which source to cite

21.2(d)(2) Bound official or unofficial treaty source citations

21.2(d)(3) Internet citation

19.1(g) Document sources
21.2 Full Citation Format for Treaties and Conventions No Longer in Force 19.2 Full Citation Format for Treaties, Conventions, and Agreements No Longer in Force
21.3 Short Citation Format for Treaties and Conventions 19.3 Short Citation Format for Treaties, Conventions, and Agreements

19.3(a) Short citation formats for treaty, convention, or agreement

  19.3(b)(FN) Short citation formats for treaty, convention, or agreement in academic footnotes (new)
Chart 21.1 Selected Bound Treaty Sources Chart 19.1 Document Sources for Treaties, Conventions, and International Agreements
Sidebar 21.1 Internet Access to International Materials Not treated in 5th edition
21.4 Selected International Law Sources 19.4 International and Foreign Law Sources
21.4(a) United Nations materials generally
21.4(b) UN Charter
21.4(c) Subsidiary UN organizations
21.4(d) Sources for UN material
21.4(e) League of Nations
21.4(f) International tribunals
Not treated in 5th edition; refer to Guide to Foreign and International Legal Citations (2d ed. 2009) or Part IV of the Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA), http://
www.law.ox.ac.uk/published/OSCOLA_2006_
citing_international_law.pdf.
21.5 Selected Foreign Sources
21.5(a) General principles
21.5(b) Selected foreign materials
Not treated in 5th edition; refer to Guide to Foreign and International Legal Citations (2d ed. 2009) or Part IV of the Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA), http://
www.law.ox.ac.uk/published/OSCOLA_2006_
citing_international_law.pdf.
Rule 22: Books, Treatises, and Other Nonperiodic Materials Rule 20: Books, Treatises, and Other Nonperiodic Materials
22.1 Full Citation Format 20.1 Full Citation Format for Books, Treatises, and Other Nonperiodic Materials
  20.1(a) Volume number (new)
22.1(a) Author’s name 20.1(b) Author
   22.1(a)(1) Single author    20.1(b)(1) Single author of work
   22.1(a)(2) Multiple authors    20.1(b)(2) Multiple authors of work
   22.1(a)(3) Institutional author    20.1(b)(3) Institutional author of work
   22.1(a)(4) No or unknown author    20.1(b)(4) Unlisted or unknown author of work
22.1(b) Title 20.1(c) Title of work

20.1(c)(1) Words in title; subtitle

20.1(c)(2) Titles in foreign languages

22.1(c) Pinpoint reference 20.1(d) Pinpoint references
22.1(d) Editor

22.1(e) Translator

20.1(e) Publication parenthetical

20.1(e)(1) Editor or translator of work

22.1(f) Edition

22.1(g) Printings of editions

   20.1(e)(3) Edition and printing
22.1(h) Star editions 20.2 Star Editions
22.1(i) Publisher    20.1(e)(2) Publisher of work
22.1(j) Date 20.1(e) Publication parenthetical

20.1(e)(5) Year of publication

     20.1(f)(FN) Full citation format for books, treatises, and other nonperiodic materials in academic footnotes (new)
22.1(k) Works in a series    20.1(e)(4) Works in a series
22.1(l) Collected works of one author 20.3 Collected Works

20.3(a) Collected works of a single author

22.1(m) Collected works of several authors 20.3(b) Collected works of multiple authors
  20.3(c) Reprint collections of previously published works (new)
  20.3(d) Collections of previously unpublished works (new)
  20.3(e)(FN) Full citation formats for collected works in academic footnotes (new)
  20.4 Books, Treatises, and Other Nonperiodic Materials in Electronic Media (new)
22.1(n) The Bible, the Koran, and the Talmud 20.5 Full Citation Formats for Religious Works: The Bible, the Koran, and the Talmud
22.1(o) Books in a foreign language       20.1(c)(2) Titles in foreign languages
22.1` Short Citation Format for Works Other Than Those in a Collection 20.6 Short Citation Formats for Books, Treatises, and Other Nonperiodic Materials
22.1(a) Id.

22.2(b) Documents without footnotes

20.6(a) Short citation formats for single work
22.2(c) Documents with footnotes 20.6(d)(FN) Short citation formats for single work in academic footnotes
22.3 Short Citation Format for Works in a Collection

22.3(a) Documents without footnotes

20.6(b) Short citation formats for collected works
22.3(b) Documents with footnotes    20.6(d)(2)(FN) Short citation formats for collected works in academic footnotes
  20.6(c) Short citation formats for religious works (new)
Rule 23: Legal and Other Periodicals Rule 21: Legal and Other Periodicals
  21.1 Consecutive and Nonconsecutive Pagination (new)
23.1 Full Citation Format 21.2 Full Citation Format for Consecutively Paginated Periodicals
  21.3 Full Citation Format for Nonconsecutively Paginated Periodicals (new)
23.1(a) Author’s name

23.1(a)(1) Single, multiple, and unknown authors

21.2(a) Author’s name

21.3(a) Author’s name

   23.1(a)(2) Student authors 21.2(b) Student author
Sidebar 23.1 Identifying Student Authors Sidebar 21.1 Identifying Student Authors
23.1(b) Title 21.2(c) Title and subtitle of work

21.3(b) Title of work

23.1(c) Volume number 21.2(d) Volume number

21.3(c) Periodical abbreviation; volume number, if any

23.1(d) Periodical abbreviation 21.2(e) Abbreviation of periodical name

21.3(c) Periodical abbreviation; volume number, if any

23.1(e) Page numbers 21.2(f) Initial page and pinpoint references

21.2(e) Initial page and pinpoint references

23.1(f) Date 21.2(g) Publication parenthetical

21.3(d) Publication date

23.1(g) Symposia, colloquia, survey issues, and special issues 21.2(h) Special issues, symposia, colloquia, surveys
23.1(h) Multipart articles 21.2(i) Multi-part works
23.1(i) Electronic journals 21.5 Full Citation Format for Electronic Periodicals
  21.3(f) Newspapers (new)

21.3(f)(1) Editorials, op-eds, and letters to the editor (new)

21.3(f)(2) Place of publication (new)

21.3(f)(3) Section and initial page

23.1(j) Letter to the editor    21.3(f)(1) Editorials, op-eds, and letters to the editor (new)
  21.3(g) Newsletters (new)
23.1(k) Cartoon or comic strip 21.4 Full Citation Format for Cartoons or Comic Strips
  21.6(FN) Full Citation Formats for Legal and Other Periodicals in Academic Footnotes (new)
23.2 Short Citation Format 21.7 Short Citation Formats for Legal and Other Periodicals
23.2(a) Id.

23.2(b) Documents without footnotes

21.7(a) Short citation formats for periodicals
23.2(c) Documents with footnotes 21.7(b)(FN) Short citation formats for periodicals in academic footnotes (new)
Sidebar 23.2 Journals That Use Large and Small Capital Letters 1.4(FN) Using Large and Small Capital Letters (new)

Chart 1.3 Components Using Large and Small Capital Letters in Academic Footnotes (new)

Rule 24: A.L.R. Annotations Rule 22: Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and A.L.R. Annotations
24.1 Full Citation Format 22.6 Full Citation Format for A.L.R. Annotations
24.1(a) Author’s name 22.6(a) Author’s name; annotation designation
24.1(b) Annotation title 22.6(b) Annotation title
24.1(c) Volume number

24.1(d) A.L.R. Series

22.6(c) Volume number and A.L.R. series
Chart 24.1 Abbreviations for A.L.R. Series Chart 22.2 Abbreviations for A.L.R. Series
24.1(e) Initial page

24.1(f) Pinpoint reference

22.6(d) Initial page and pinpoint references
24.1(g) Date 22.6(e) Year of publication
  22.6(g)(FN) Full citation format for annotation in academic footnotes (new)
24.2 Short Citation Format 22.7 Short Citation Formats for A.L.R. Annotations 22.7(a) Short citation formats for annotation
  22.7(b)(FN) Short citation formats for annotation in academic footnotes (new)
24.3 E-Annotations 22.6(f) E-annotations
Rule 25: Legal Dictionaries Rule 22: Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and A.L.R. Annotations
25.1 Full Citation Format 22.1 Full Citation Format for Dictionaries

22.1(a) Full citation format for dictionary

  22.1(b) Full citation format for dictionary in academic footnotes (new)
25.2 Short Citation Format 22.2 Short Citation Formats for Dictionaries

22.2(a) Short citation formats for dictionary

  22.2(b) Short citation formats for dictionary in academic footnotes (new)
25.3 Nonlegal Dictionaries Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 26: Legal Encyclopedias Rule 22: Dictionaries, Encyclopedias, and A.L.R. Annotations
26.1 Full Citation Format for Multivolume Encyclopedias without Authors or Editors 22.3 Full Citation Format for Multi-Volume Encyclopedias
26.1(a) Volume number 22.3(a) Volume number
26.1(b) Encyclopedia abbreviation 22.3(b) Encyclopedia abbreviation
Chart 26.1 Selected Encyclopedia Abbreviations Chart 22.1 Representative Encyclopedia Abbreviations
26.1(c) Title or topic 22.3(c) Title or topic name
26.1(d) Section symbol

26.1(e) Section number

22.3(d) Pinpoint references
26.1(f) Date 22.3(e) Publication parenthetical
  22.3(f)(FN) Full citation format for multi-volume encyclopedia in academic footnotes (new)
26.2 Short Citation Format for Multivolume Encyclopedias without Authors or Editors 22.5 Short Citation Formats for Encyclopedias

22.5(a) Short citation format using id.

22.5(b) Short citation format for multi-volume encyclopedia

26.3 Encyclopedias with Author or Editor 22.4 Full Citation Format for Encyclopedias with Named Authors or Editors

22.4(a) Full citation format for encyclopedia with named author or editor

  22.4(b)(FN) Full citation format for encyclopedia with named author or editor in academic footnotes (new)
  22.5(c) Short citation format for single-volume encyclopedia or encyclopedia with named author or editor (new)
  22.5(d)(FN) Short citation formats for encyclopedias in academic footnotes (new)
Rule 27: Restatements, Model Codes, Uniform Laws, and Sentencing Guidelines Rule 23: Restatements, Model Codes, Uniform Laws, and Sentencing Guidelines
27.1 Full Citation Format for Restatements 23.1 Full Citation Format for Restatements
27.1(a) Title 23.1(a) Title, subject matter, and series
Sidebar 27.1 Subject Matters of Restatements Sidebar 23.1 Subject Matters of Restatements
27.1(b) Pinpoint reference 23.1(b) Pinpoint references
27.1(c) Draft information 23.1(d) Draft information
27.1(d) Date 23.1(c) Year of publication
  23.1(e)(FN) Full citation format for Restatement in academic footnotes (new)
27.2 Short Citation Format for Restatements 23.2 Short Citation Formats for Restatements

23.2(a) Short citation formats for Restatements

  23.2(b)(FN) Short citation formats for Restatement in academic footnotes (new)
27.3 Model Codes and Acts 23.3 Full Citation Format for Model Codes and Acts

23.3(a) Full citation format for model code or act

23.4 Short Citation Formats for Model Codes and Acts

  23.3(b)(FN) Full citation format for model code or act in academic footnotes (new)
27.4 Uniform Laws 23.5 Full Citation Format for Uniform Laws

23.5(a) Full citation format for uniform law

23.5(b) Publication in Uniform Laws Annotated

23.6 Short Citation Formats for Uniform Laws

  23.5(c)(FN) Full citation format for uniform law in academic footnotes (new)
27.5 Sentencing Guidelines 23.7 Full Citation Format for Sentencing Guidelines 23.7(a) Full citation format for sentencing guidelines

23.8 Short Citation Formats for Sentencing Guidelines

23.8(a) Short citation formats for sentencing guidelines

  23.7(b)(FN) Full citation format for sentencing guidelines in academic footnotes (new)

23.8(b)(FN) Short citation formats for sentencing guidelines in academic footnotes (new)

Rule 28: Looseleaf Services and Reporters Rule 24: Looseleaf Services and Reporters
28.1 Full Citation Format for Cases and Administrative Decisions in Looseleaf Services 24.1 Full Citation Format for Case Materials in Looseleaf Services
28.1(a) Case name 24.1(a) Case name
28.1(b) Looseleaf volume 24.1(b) Looseleaf volume designation
28.1(c) Looseleaf abbreviation 24.1(c) Looseleaf service abbreviation
28.1(d) Publisher 24.1(d) Publisher
Chart 28.1 Abbreviations for Looseleaf Publishers Chart 24.1 Abbreviations for Names of Looseleaf Publishers
28.1(e) Subdivision information

28.1(e)(1) Looseleafs divided by paragraphs

28.1(e)(2) Looseleafs divided by pages

28.1(e)(3) Looseleafs divided by report number

28.1(e)(4) Other subdivisions

24.1(e) Initial subdivision and pinpoint references
Sidebar 28.1 Understanding Paragraphs in Looseleaf Services Sidebar 24.1 Understanding Paragraphs in Looseleaf Services
28.1(f) Court abbreviation 24.1(f) Court abbreviation
28.1(g) Date 24.1(g) Date of decision
28.1(h) Subsequent history 24.1(h) Subsequent history
28.1(i) Other information 24.1(i) Prior history and other information
  24.1(j)(FN) Full citation format for looseleaf service case materials in academic footnotes (new)
28.2 Short Citation Format for Cases and Administrative Decisions in Looseleaf Services 24.2 Short Citation Formats for Case Materials in Looseleaf Services
28.3 Full Citation Format for Noncase Material in Looseleaf Services 24.3 Full Citation Format for Non-Case Materials in Looseleaf Services
28.4 Short Citation Format for Noncase Material in Looseleaf Services 24.4 Short Citation Formats for Non-Case Materials in Looseleaf Services
Rule 29: Practitioner and Court Documents, Transcripts, and Appellate Records Rule 25: Practitioner and Court Documents, Transcripts, and Appellate Records
29.1 Scope of Rule 25.1 Scope of Rule
29.2 Full Citation Format for Practitioner and Court Documents 25.2 Full Citation Format for Practitioner and Court Documents
29.2(a) Document name 25.2(a) Document name
29.2(b) Pinpoint reference 25.2(b) Pinpoint references
29.2(c) Date 25.2(c) Date of filing, service, or preparation
  25.2(d) Case number (new)
29.3 Transcripts 25.3 Full Citation Format for Transcripts
29.3(a) Document name 25.3(a) Transcript abbreviation
29.3(b) Pinpoint reference 25.3(b) Pinpoint references
29.3(c) Date 25.3(c) Date of proceeding
29.4 Short Citation Format for Practitioner Documents, Court Documents, and Transcripts 25.4 Short Citation Formats for Practitioner and Court Documents and Transcripts
29.5 Full Citation Format for Appellate Records 25.5 Full Citation Format for Appellate Records
29.5(a) Options 25.5(a) Full citation options
29.5(b) Line numbers 25.5(b) Pinpoint references to line numbers
29.6 Short Citation Format for Appellate Records 25.6 Short Citation Format for Appellate Records
Sidebar 29.1 Inserting Document Names and Record Cites in Memoranda and Court Documents Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 30: Speeches, Addresses, Oral Presentations, and Live Performances Rule 26: Speeches, Addresses, and Oral Presentations
30.1 Full Citation Format for Unpublished Speeches, Addresses, and Other Oral Presentations 26.1 Full Citation Format for Unpublished Speeches, Addresses, and Other Oral Presentations
30.1(a) Speaker’s name 26.1(a) Speaker’s name, title, and institutional affiliation
30.1(b) Type of presentation

30.1(c) Subject or title of presentation

26.1(b) Subject or title of presentation
30.1(d) Pinpoint citation 26.1(c) Pinpoint references
30.1(e) Place of presentation Not treated in 5th edition
30.1(f) Date 26.1(d) Date of presentation
30.1(g) Information about how to locate source 26.1(e) Information for locating source of transcript or recording
  26.1(f)(FN) Full citation to unpublished speech, address, or other oral presentation in academic footnotes (new)
30.2 Short Citation Format for Unpublished Speeches, Addresses, and Other Oral Presentations 26.3 Short Citation Formats for Speeches, Addresses, and Oral Presentations
30.2(a) Id.

30.2(b) Documents without footnotes

26.3(a) Short citation formats for speeches, addresses, and oral presentations
30.2(c) Documents with footnotes 26.3(b)(FN) Short citation formats for speeches, addresses, and oral presentations in academic footnotes
30.3 Other Live Performances 28.1 Full Citation Format for Video and Visual Programs

28.7 Short Citation Formats for Video and Visual Programs, Radio, Audio Recordings, and Microformed Sources

30.4 Published Presentations 26.2 Published Presentation
Rule 31: Interviews Rule 27: Interviews, Letters, and Memoranda
31.1 Full Citation Format for Interviews Conducted by the Author 27.1 Full Citation Format for Interviews Conducted by the Author
31.1(a) Designation 27.1(a) Designation of interview
31.1(b) Interviewee’s name

31.1(c) Interviewee’s title and affiliation

27.1(b) Interviewee’s name, title, and institutional affiliation
  27.1(c) Anonymous interviewee (new)
  27.1(d) Location of interview (new)
31.1(d) Date 27.1(e) Date parenthetical
31.1(e) Additional information Not treated in 5th edition
31.2 Full Citation Format for Interviews Conducted by Another 27.2 Full Citation Format for Interviews Conducted by Another
31.3 Short Citation Format 27.5 Short Citation Formats for Interviews, Letters, and Memoranda
31.3(a) Id.

31.3(b) Documents without footnotes

27.5(a) Short citation formats for interviews, letters, and memoranda
31.3(c) Documents with footnotes 27.5(b)(FN) Short citation formats for interviews, letters, and memoranda in academic footnotes
Rule 32: Letters and Memoranda Rule 27: Interviews, Letters, and Memoranda
32.1 Full Citation Format for Unpublished Letters and Memoranda 27.3 Full Citation Format for Unpublished Letters and Memoranda
32.1(a) Designation 27.3(a) Designation of unpublished letter or memorandum
32.1(b) Author’s name

32.1(c) Author’s title and affiliation

27.3(b) Author’s name, title, and affiliation
32.1(d) Recipient’s name

32.1(e) Recipient’s title and affiliation

27.3(c) Recipient’s name, title, and affiliation
32.1(f) Subject 27.3(d) Title or subject of letter or memorandum
32.1(g) Pinpoint reference 27.3(e) Pinpoint references
32.1(h) Date 27.3(f) Date parenthetical
32.1(i) Location 27.3(g) Information for locating copy of letter or memorandum
32.2 Short Citation Format for Unpublished Letters and Memoranda 27.5 Short Citation Formats for Interviews, Letters, and Memoranda
32.2(a) Id.

32.2(b) Documents without footnotes

27.5(a) Short citation formats for interviews, letters, and memoranda
32.2(c) Documents with footnotes 27.5(b)(FN) Short citation formats for interviews, letters, and memoranda in academic footnotes
32.3 Published Letters and Memoranda 27.4 Citation Formats for Published Letters and Memoranda
Rule 33: Video and Visual Sources Rule 28: Video and Visual Programs; Radio; Audio Recordings; Microformed Sources
33.1 General Full Citation Format for Video and Visual Programs 28.1 Full Citation Format for Video and Visual Programs
33.1(a) Title 28.1(a) Title of program
33.1(b) Episode 28.1(b) Title of episode
33.1(c) Subdivisions 28.1(c) Pinpoint references
33.1(d) Recorder or producer

33.1(e) Date

33.1(e)(1) Nonepisodic programs

33.1(e)(2) Episodic programs

33.1(f) Type of recording or program

28.1(d) Producer, broadcaster, and program/date parenthetical
33.1(g) Transcript information 28.1(e) Transcripts and parallel citations to online versions of programs
  28.1(f)(FN) Full citation format for video or visual program in academic footnotes (new)
33.2 General Short Citation Format for Video and Visual Programs

33.2(a) Id.

33.2(b) Documents without footnotes

28.7 Short Citation Formats for Video and Visual Programs, Radio, Audio Recordings, and Microformed Sources
33.2(c) Documents with footnotes 28.7(b)(FN) Short citation formats for video and visual programs, radio, audio recordings, and microformed sources in academic footnotes
33.3 Full Citation Format for New Media Sources 33.4 Full Citation Format for New Media Sources
33.3(a) Presenter, author, or host 33.4(a) Presenter, author, or host
33.3(b) Type of source
33.3(c) Title 33.4(b) Title of source
33.3(d) Subdivision 33.4(c) Pinpoint references
33.3(e) Owner, sponsor, or recorder

33.3(f) Date

33.4(d) Owner, sponsor, or recorder and date parenthetical
33.3(g) Location information 33.4(e) URL or other location information; transcript availability
33.4 Short Citation Format for New Media Sources 33.7 Short Citation Formats for Email and Other Electronic Media
33.5 Photographs Not treated in 5th edition
33.6 Artwork and Architecture Not treated in 5th edition
33.7 Advertisements Not treated in 5th edition
33.8 Maps Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 34: Audio Sources  
34.1 Full Citation Format for Entire Recordings 28.3 Full Citation Format for Audio Recordings
34.1(a) Performer or composer 28.3(a) Performer or composer name
34.1(b) Type of recording Not treated in 5th edition
34.1(c) Title 28.3(b) Title of audio recording
  28.3(c) Pinpoint references (new)
34.1(d) Recorder

34.1(e) Date

28.3(d) Recording parenthetical
34.1(f) Additional information Not treated in 5th edition
34.2 Full Citation Format for a Single Work in a Collection 28.4 Full Citation Format for Single Audio Recording in a Collection
  28.5(FN) Full Citation Formats for Audio Recordings in Academic Footnotes (new)
34.3 Short Citation Format for Sound Recordings 28.7 Short Citation Formats for Video and Visual Programs, Radio, Audio Recordings, and Microformed Sources
  28.7(b)(FN) Short citation formats for video and visual programs, radio, audio recordings, and microformed sources in academic footnotes (new)
34.4 Radio Broadcasts and Series 28.2 Full Citation Format for Radio Broadcasts and Series

28.7 Short Citation Formats for Video and Visual Programs, Radio, Audio Recordings, and Microformed Sources

34.5 Podcasts and Other Online Audio Sources 28.3 Full Citation Format for Audio Recordings
34.6 Audiobooks Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 35: Microformed Materials  
35.1 Full Citation Format for Microform Collections Containing Material Also Available in Print Format

35.2 Full Citation Format for Microform Collections Containing Material Not Otherwise Available

28.6 Full Citation Format for Microformed Sources

28.6(a) When to cite a microformed source

  28.6(b) Parallel citation to microformed source (new)
  28.6(c)(FN) Full citation format for microformed source in academic footnotes (new)
35.3 Short Citation Format 28.7 Short Citation Formats for Video and Visual Programs, Radio, Audio Recordings, and Microformed Sources
  28.7(b)(FN) Short citation formats for video and visual programs, radio, audio recordings, and microformed sources in academic footnotes (new)
Rule 36: Forthcoming Works Rule 29: Forthcoming Works, Unpublished Works and Working Papers
36.1 Full Citation Format 29.1 Full Citation Format for Forthcoming Works
36.1(a) Unavailable information 29.1(a) Omission of initial page reference
36.1(b) Date 29.1(b) Forthcoming publication date
36.1(c) Pinpoint reference and location 29.1(c) Parentheticals for pinpoint reference and location of manuscript
  29.4(FN) Full Citation Formats for Forthcoming Works, Unpublished Works, and Working Papers in Academic Footnotes (new)
36.1(d) Forthcoming cases 12.12 Cases Not Yet Available in Print Reporter

12.15 Cases Available Only in Slip Opinions

36.2 Short Citation Format 29.5 Short Citation Formats for Forthcoming Works, Unpublished Works, and Working Papers
Rule 37: Unpublished Works and Working Papers Rule 29: Forthcoming Works, Unpublished Works and Working Papers
37.1 Full Citation Format for Unpublished Works 29.2 Full Citation Format for Unpublished Works
37.1(a) Author’s name 29.2(a) Author’s name
37.1(b) Title 29.2(b) Title
37.1(c) Pinpoint reference 29.2(c) Pinpoint references
37.1(d) Designation 29.2(e) Descriptive parenthetical
37.1(e) Date 29.2(d) Date parenthetical
37.1(f) Location 29.2(f) Location of manuscript
37.2 Short Citation Format for Unpublished Works 29.5 Short Citation Formats for Forthcoming Works, Unpublished Works, and Working Papers
37.3 Working Papers 29.3 Full Citation Format for Working Papers

29.5 Short Citation Formats for Forthcoming Works, Unpublished Works, and Working Papers

  29.4(FN) Full Citation Formats for Forthcoming Works, Unpublished Works, and Working Papers in Academic Footnotes (new)
Rule 38: General Information about Online and Electronic Citation Formats Rule 30: Electronic Sources in General
38.1 Source Available in Print and Electronic Formats 30.1 General Information About Citations to Sources in Print and Electronic Versions

30.1(a) Sources available both in print and electronic versions

  30.1(b) Authenticated, official, and exact reproduction sources (new)
  Sidebar 30.1 Types of Websites and Indicia of Reliability
38.2 Source Available Only in Electronic Format 30.2 Citing Sources in Electronic Format
  Sidebar 30.2 Choosing Which Electronic Version of a Source to Cite (new)
  Chart 30.1 Rules for Electronic Formats and Parallel Electronic Source Citations (new)
Sidebar 38.1 Accessing and Preserving Electronic Sources Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 39: Westlaw and LexisNexis Rule 32: Commercial Databases
  32.1 When to Cite Commercial Databases (new)
39.1 Full Citation Format When a Unique Identifier Is Available 32.2 Full Citation Format When a Unique Identifier Is Available

32.2(a) Direct citation to source with unique identifier

  32.2(b) Parallel citation to source with unique identifier (new)
39.2 Full Citation Format When a Unique Identifier Is Not Available 32.3 Full Citation Format When a Unique Identifier Is Not Available
39.3 Short Citation Format for Westlaw and LexisNexis Citations

39.3(a) Id.

39.3(b) Print and electronic version

39.3(c) Only electronic version

32.4 Short Citation Formats for Commercial Databases

32.4(a) Short citation formats for commercial databases

  32.4(b)(FN) Short citation formats for commercial databases in academic footnotes (new)
39.4 Compilation of Materials from Electronic Databases Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 40: World Wide Web Sites Rule 31: World Wide Web Sites
  31.1 When to Cite a Source on the World Wide Web (new)
40.1 Full Citation Format 31.2 Full Citation Format for Sources Only Available on the World Wide Web
40.1(a) Author’s or owner’s name 31.2(a) Author’s or owner’s name
40.1(b) Title 31.2(b) Title of cited page and homepage or domain name
  Chart 31.1 Common Domain Name Suffixes (new)
40.1(c) Pinpoint reference 31.2(c) Pinpoint references
40.1(d) URL

40.1(d)(1) Electronic address

40.1(d)(2) Contents of URL

40.1(d)(4) Multiple URLs

40.1(d)(5) Angle brackets

40.1(d)(6) Underlining URL

40.1(d)(7) Case sensitivity

40.1(d)(8) Breaking across a line

31.2(d) URL
   40.1(d)(3) Keystroke identifiers 31.2(e) Keystroke identifier alternative to URL
   40.1(d)(9) Updating URLs Not treated in 5th edition
40.1(e) Date 31.2(f) Date parenthetical

31.2(f)(1) Exact date of the document being cited

31.2(f)(2) Exact date plus specific time of posting

31.2(f)(3) Date of site’s last update or modification

31.2(f)(4) Date on which writer last visited the source

  31.2(g) Full citation format for World Wide Web sources in academic footnotes (new)
Sidebar 40.1 Types of Web Sites and Indicia of Reliability Sidebar 30.1 Types of Websites and Indicia of Reliability
  31.4 Parallel Citations to Sources on the World Wide Web (new)
40.2 Short Citation Format 31.5 Short Citation Format for Sources on the World Wide Web
40.2(a) Id.

40.2(b) Documents without footnotes

31.5(a) Short citation formats for World Wide Web sources
40.2(c) Documents with footnotes 31.5(b) Short citation formats for World Wide Web sources in academic footnotes
40.3 Blogs

40.3(a) Full citation format

40.3(b) Short citation format

31.3 Blogs, Microblogs, and Wikis
40.4 Microblogs 31.3 Blogs, Microblogs, and Wikis
40.5 Wikis 31.3 Blogs, Microblogs, and Wikis
40.6 Online Social Networks Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 41: Electronic Mail and Messages Rule 33: Electronic Mail and Postings; New Media Sources; E-Readers; CD-ROMs
41.1 Full Citation Format for Personal Email 33.1 Full Citation Format for Electronic Mail

33.1(a) Designation of email

33.1(b) Subject of email

33.1(c) Location of copy

41.2 Full Citation Format for Email Sent to a Group, Discussion Group, or Listserv 33.2 Full Citation Format for Listserv Postings

33.3 Postings to Discussion Groups and Forums

41.3 Short Citation Format for Email 33.7 Short Citation Formats for Email and Other Electronic Media
41.4 Other Electronic Messages Not treated in 5th edition
Rule 42: CD-ROMs and E-Readers Rule 33: Electronic Mail and Postings; New Media Sources; E-Readers; CD-ROMs
42.1 Full Citation Format for Material on CD-ROM 33.6 Full Citation Format for Material on CD-ROM
42.1(a) Source available in print and on CD-ROM 33.6(a) Availability in conventional media as well as CD-ROM
42.1(b) Source not in print but contained on privately published CD-ROM Not treated in 5th edition
42.1(c) Source not in print but contained on commercially published CD-ROM 33.6(b) Citing source on commercially published CD-ROM
42.2 Short Citation Format for Material on CD-ROM 33.7 Short Citation Formats for Email and Other Electronic Media
42.3 Materials Accessed on E-Readers 33.5 Citation Formats for E-Readers and E-Books
42.3(a) General convention 33.5(a) Availability in conventional media as well as e-reader
42.3(b) E-Books 33.5(b) Modified citation components for e-books
42.3(c) E-Periodicals

42.3(d) Other sources

33.5(c) Other e-reader sources
Rule 43: Citation Placement and Use Rule 34: Citation Placement and Use
43.1 Placement Options 34.1 Placement Options
43.1(a) Citation sentences 34.1(a) Citation sentences
43.1(b) Citation clauses 34.1(b) Citation clauses
43.1(c) Embedded citations 34.1(c) Embedded citations
43.1(d) Textual references 34.1(d) Textual references
  34.1(e)(FN) Placement of citations in academic footnotes and endnotes (new)
43.1(e) Note reference numbers

43.1(e)(1) Definition

   34.1(e)(1)(FN) Note reference numbers
   43.1(e)(2) General rules

43.1(e)(2)(a) Inserting notes

43.1(e)(2)(b) Numbering

43.1(e)(2)(c) Relation to punctuation

43.1(e)(2)(d) Placement when note concerns entire textual sentence

43.1(e)(2)(e) Placement when note concerns only part of the textual sentence

   34.1(e)(2)(FN) Placement of note references
Sidebar 43.1 Using Your Word Processor to Format Footnotes Sidebar 34.1 Using Your Word Processor to Format Footnotes
     43.1(e)(2)(f) Multiple notes within a single textual sentence    34.1(e)(3)(FN) Multiple note references within a single textual sentence
     43.1(e)(2)(g) Note reference numbers within quoted material    34.1(e)(4)(FN) Note reference numbers within quoted material
     43.1(e)(2)(h) [Omitting reference numbers] 40.3(d) To indicate omission of footnotes or citations
43.2 Frequency of Citation 34.2 Frequency of Citation
43.3 Number of Sources to Cite 34.3 Number of Sources to Cite
43.3(a) Type of document and audience 34.3(a) Type of document and audience
43.3(b) Number of relevant authorities 34.3(b) Number of relevant authorities
43.3(c) Whether the proposition is established or contested 34.3(c) Whether the proposition is established, contested, or novel
43.4 Guidelines for Determining Which Authorities to Cite in a Legal Memorandum or Court Document 34.4 Guidelines for Determining Which Authorities to Cite
Rule 44: Signals Rule 35: Signals
44.1 Purpose of Signals 35.1 Function of Signals
44.2 Use of Signals 35.2 Significance of No Signal
44.3 Categories of Signals 35.3 Categories of Signals
  Chart 35.1 Categories of Signals: Types and Degrees of Support (new)
44.4 Signals and Explanatory Parentheticals Treated in Chart 35.1
44.5 Capitalizing Signals

44.6 Placement and Typeface of Signals

35.4 Formatting Signals
44.7 Repeating Signals 35.5 Signals for Multiple Authorities; Changing Signals

35.5(a) Same type and degree of support

44.8 Order of Signals and Punctuation between Different Signals 35.5(b) Different types or degrees of support
  35.5(c)(FN) Changing signals in documents with academic footnotes (new)
Rule 45: Order of Cited Authorities Rule 36: Order of Cited Authorities
45.1 Applicability 36.1 Ordering Multiple Authorities
45.2 Punctuation between Citations

45.3 General Ordering Rules

36.2 General Guidelines for Ordering Authorities
45.3(a) Primary versus secondary authorities 36.2(a) Primary authority before secondary authority
  36.2(b) Federal authority before state authority (new)
  36.2(f) Position of case unaffected by publication status (new)
45.3(b) Authored materials 36.2(g) Authored materials
45.3(c) Short-form citations 36.2(j) Position of short citation
45.3(d) Subsequent and prior histories 36.2(e) Position of case unaffected by subsequent or prior history
45.3(e) State materials Treated in Rule 36.3, Order of Specific Sources
45.3(f) Federal courts Treated in Rule 36.3, Order of Specific Sources
45.3(g) Cases from the same jurisdiction 36.2(c) Cases from the same jurisdiction
45.3(h) Cases from the same court 36.2(d) Cases from the same court
45.3(i) Forthcoming works 36.2(h) Forthcoming works
45.3(j) Material available in electronic format 36.2(i) Material available in electronic format
45.4 Specific Order of Authorities 36.3 Order of Specific Sources
45.4(a) Primary and related sources

45.4(a)(1) Constitutions

36.3(a) Constitutions
   45.4(a)(2) Statutes

45.4(a)(3) Rules of evidence and procedure

36.3(b) Statutes; rules of evidence and procedure
   45.4(a)(4) Treaties and international agreements 36.3(c) Treaties, international rules, and international agreements
   45.4(a)(5) Cases 36.3(d) Cases
   45.4(a)(6) Case-related material 36.3(h) Case-related materials
   45.4(a)(7) Administrative and executive material 36.3(f) Executive and administrative materials
   45.4(a)(8) Materials from intergovernmental organizations 36.3(g) Materials from intergovernmental organizations
45.4(b) Legislative material 36.3(e) Legislative materials
45.4(c) Secondary sources 36.3(i) Secondary sources
45.4(d) Internal cross-references 36.3(j) Internal cross-references
Rule 46: Explanatory Parentheticals and Related Authority Rule 37: Explanatory Parentheticals, Commentary, and Treatment
46.1 Using Explanatory Parentheticals 37.1 Using Explanatory Parentheticals
Sidebar 46.1 Using Explanatory Parentheticals Effectively Not treated in 5th edition
46.2 Placement of Explanatory Parentheticals 37.2 Placement of Explanatory Parentheticals

37.2(a) Placement in general

37.2(b) Placement with other parentheticals

37.2(c) Parenthetical requiring its own parenthetical

  Sidebar 37.1 Order of Parentheticals (new)
46.3 Formatting Explanatory Parentheticals 37.3 Constructing Explanatory Parentheticals
46.4 Related Authority and Commentary 37.4 Commentary About Source or Treatment of Source
Rule 47: Quotations Rule 38: Quotations
47.1 Using Quotations 38.1 When to Quote
47.2 Accuracy 38.2 Quoting Accurately
47.3 Relation to Text 38.3 Quotation Formats
47.4 Short Quotations 38.4 Short Quotations
47.4(a) General rule 38.4(a) Enclosure with double quotation marks
47.4(b) Citation after quotation: Documents without footnotes and material within footnotes 38.4(d) Placement of citation to source of short quotation

38.4(f) Source of quotation identified in sentence

47.4(c) Note reference number after citation: Documents with footnotes 38.4(e)(FN) Placement of citation to source of short quotation in academic footnotes
47.4(d) Punctuation 38.4(b) Punctuation of short quotations

38.4(b)(1) Quotation of whole sentence

38.4(b)(2) Commas and periods

38.4(b)(3) Colons and semicolons

38.4(b)(4) Question marks and exclamation marks

38.4(c) Quotation within a short quotation

47.5 Longer Quotations 38.5 Long Quotations
47.5(a) General rule 38.5(a) Block format
47.5(b) Quotations within parentheticals 38.5(c) Long quotations in parentheticals
47.5(c) Citations after quotations: Documents without footnotes and material within footnotes 38.5(e) Placement of citation to source of quotation
47.5(d) Placement of note reference number after citation: Documents with footnotes 38.5(f)(FN) Placement of citation to source of quotation in academic footnotes
47.5(e) Paragraphing within block quotes 38.5(d) Paragraphing within block-format quotations
47.6 Epigraphs

47.6(a) Definition

38.6 Epigraphs
47.6(b) Format 38.6 Epigraphs

38.6(a) Placement of citation to source of epigraph

38.6(b)(FN) Placement of citation to source of epigraph in academic footnotes

47.7 Quotations within Quotations

47.7(a) Quotations within short quotations

38.4(c) Quotation within a short quotation
47.7(b) Quotations within block quotations 38.5(b) Quotation within a block-format quotation
47.7(c) Citations for internal quotations 38.4(d) Placement of citation to source of short quotation
   47.7(c)(1) If the source of the internal quotation is cited within the quotation 38.4(f) Source of quotation identified in sentence

38.5(e) Placement of citation to source of quotation

   47.7(c)(2) If the source of the internal quotation is not cited within the quoted material 38.4(c) Quotation within a short quotation

38.5(e) Placement of citation to source of quotation

Rule 48: Altering Quoted Material Rule 39: Altering Quotations
48.1 Altering the Case of a Letter 39.1 Altering the Case of a Single Letter in a Word
48.2 Adding, Changing, or Deleting One or More Letters 39.2 Adding, Changing, or Omitting One or More Letters in a Word
48.3 Adding a Footnote within a Block Quotation 39.5(FN) Adding a Footnote Within a Block Quotation
48.4 Substituting or Adding Words 39.3 Substituting or Adding Words to a Quotation
48.5 Altering Typeface 39.4 Altering Typeface in a Quotation

39.4(a) Parenthetical description of alteration

39.4(b) Distinguishing original and added emphasis

48.6 Mistakes within Original Quoted Material 39.6 Indicating Mistakes Within Original Source
Rule 49: Omissions within Quotation Material Rule 40: Indicating Omissions in Quotations
49.1 General Considerations When Omitting Material within a Quotation Not treated in 5th edition
49.2 Indicating Omissions 40.1 Indicating Omissions with an Ellipsis
49.3 When to Use an Ellipsis 40.2 When to Use an Ellipsis
49.3(a) [Omission of one or more words] 40.2(a) Omission of words within a quoted sentence
49.3(b) [When not to use ellipsis for omission] 40.3 When Not to Use an Ellipsis

40.3(a) Before or after words and phrases incorporated into writer’s sentence

40.3(b) At the beginning of a quotation

40.3(c) To indicate omission of material following a complete sentence

40.3(d) To indicate omission of footnotes or citations

49.3(c) Quotation as full sentence 40.3(b) [Do not use ellipsis] At the beginning of a quotation
49.3(d) Omitting footnotes and citations 40.3(d) [Do not use ellipsis] To indicate omission of footnotes or citations
49.4 How to Use Ellipses

49.4(a) Omission within the quoted passage

40.2 When to Use an Ellipsis

40.2(a) Omission of words within a quoted sentence

49.4(b) When the end of the quoted sentence is omitted 40.2(b) Omission of words from end of quoted sentence
49.4(c) Matter after a quoted sentence when the quotation continues 40.2(c) Omission of full sentence from quoted passage

40.3(c) [Do not use ellipsis] To indicate omission of material following a complete sentence

49.4(d) Omitting one or more paragraphs 40.2(d) Omission of one or more paragraphs from quoted passage
Appendix 1: Primary Sources by Jurisdiction Appendix 1 Primary Sources by Jurisdiction

1(A) Federal Primary Sources

1(B) States’ and District of Columbia’s Primary Sources

1(C) Territories’ and Tribal Courts’ Primary Sources

Appendix 1A: West Regional Reporter Coverage Not treated in 5th edition
Appendix 1B: State Appellate Court Divisions Not treated in 5th edition
Appendix 2: Local Court Citation Rules Appendix 2 Local Court Citation Rules

2(A) Federal Courts

2(A)(1) United States Supreme Court

2(A)(2) United States Circuit Courts of Appeal

2(A)(3) United States District Courts (States and Territories)

2(B) State Courts

Appendix 3: General Abbreviations Appendix 3 General Abbreviation
Appendix 3.A: Calendar Divisions 3(A) Calendar Divisions
Appendix 3.B: United States and World Geography 3(B) United States and World Geography

3(B)(1) States and Territories of the United States

3(B)(2) Major United States Cities

3(B)(3) Countries and Regions

Appendix 3.C: Subdivisions 3(C) Subdivisions
Appendix 3.D: Publishing Terms 3(D) Publishing Terms
Appendix 3.E: General Abbreviations 3(E) Case Names and Statutes
  3(E) Legislative Terms (new)
  3(G) Court Documents (new)
Appendix 4: Court Abbreviations Appendix 4 Court Abbreviation
4.A: State Courts 4(B) State Court Abbreviations
Sidebar A4.1 The Structure of State Court Systems Not treated in 5th edition
4.B: Federal Courts 4(A) Federal Courts
Sidebar A4.2 Dissecting a Federal District Court Abbreviation Not treated in 5th edition
Appendix 5: Abbreviations for Legal Periodicals Appendix 5 Periodical Abbreviations
Appendix 6: Legal Memorandum Example Not treated in 5th edition
Appendix 7: Federal Taxation Materials Appendix 6 Federal Taxation Materials
7.A: Statutory Compilations 6(A) Statutory Compilations
Sidebar A7.1 Versions of the Internal Revenue Code Sidebar A6.1 Versions of the Internal Revenue Code
7.B: Tax Courts and Reporters 6(B) Tax Courts and Reporters
   7.B.1: Trial Courts Where Federal Tax Cases Are Heard    6(B)(1) Trial Courts Where Federal Tax Cases Are Heard
Sidebar A7.2 Case Names in Older Tax Authorities Sidebar A6.2 Case Names in Older Tax Authorities
   7.B.2: Appellate Courts for Federal Tax Cases    6(B)(2) Appellate Courts for Federal Tax Cases
   7.B.3: Unreported Opinions    6(B)(3) Unreported Opinions
7.C: Administrative Materials 6(C) Administrative Materials
   7.C.1: Administrative Announcements    6(C)(1) Administrative Announcements
   7.C.2: I.R.S. Compilations    6(C)(2) I.R.S. Compilations
Sidebar A7.3: Categories of Tax Regulations Not treated in 5th edition
   7.C.3: Officially Published I.R.S. Pronouncements    6(C)(3) Officially Published I.R.S. Pronouncements
   7.C.4: Publicly Released I.R.S. Pronouncements    6(C)(5) Other I.R.S. and Treasury Materials
Sidebar A7.4 Document Numbers before and after 2000 Sidebar A6.3 Document Numbers Before and After 2000
   7.C.5: Taxpayer Forms and Publications    6(C)(4) Taxpayer Forms and Publications
Chart A7.1: Abbreviations for Less Frequently Cited Tax Materials Not treated in 5th edition
Appendix 8: Selected Official Federal Administrative Publications Appendix 7 Federal Agencies

7(A) Selected Official Federal Administrative Reporters and Publications

  7(B) Selected Federal Agency Abbreviations (new)